Mr. Vishwas J S
Assistant Professor

MODELLING OF ROUNDABOUT AT SELECTED FOUR LEGGED INTERSECTION

DESCRIPTION Its a Transportation Engineering Project, it Consist of Modelling of Roundabout at selected four legged intersection using Auto desk Infra work 360 Software,We are converting the Signalized Conventional Four legged intersection to A Roundabout intersection to reduce Traffic queue length ,Delay time,Providing the Safety for Pedestrians,Cyclists and Reducing Accident rates by Decreasing the Conflict point, PURPOSE Purposes: 1) To Implement a Better Mode of Traffic control at Intersections 2) To Decrease the Traffic Queue length and Delay time at Intersection 3)To Provide a Sustainable Intersection type 4)To Reduce Accident Rates Challenges it Addresses: 1)Decrease the Traffic queue length and delay time 2) Gives a smooth flow of Traffic flow at intersection 3)Gives safety for Cyclist and pedestrians SOLUTION 1)By Decreasing The Conflict points it Reduces the Accident rate 2)By making Traffic Flow Continuously and slowly around a Central island it Keeps the flow continuous and reduces Traffic length and delay time on each legs. 3)By providing the footpath and Road markings for Pedestrians it helps in increasing the Safety of Pedestrians AUDIENCE 1) The society living around the Intersections are the Audiences 2)all The Drivers and passengers who pass through the Intersection Project Team 1. Mr Cheatn J 2. Mr chandrakant 3. Mr karthik guttedar 4. Prof J S Vishwas For More Details https://academy.autodesk.com/portfolios/modelling-roundabout-selected-four-legged-intersection

Prof. Ashish Parthasarathy
Assistant Professor

“Impact of Nipah virus and recovery measures implemented by Kerala Tourism”.

19th may 2018 was a fateful day in Kozikode and Mallapuram in Kerala where the epidemic nipah virus broke out. A total number of 14 cases were reports where there were 12 fatal cases [As on 24th May 2018]. The increase in the fatality rate caused tension across the south Indian states of India. With the high fatality rate of the epidemic – Nipah, Tourist and travelers who had plans to visit Kerala Cancelled their intention to visit Kerala. The cancellation of tourist visits to Kerala led to approximately 50-60% of the cancellations (Paul, 2018) Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic virus (it is transmitted from animals to humans) and can also be transmitted through contaminated food or directly between people. In infected people, it causes a range of illnesses from asymptomatic (subclinical) infection to acute respiratory illness and fatal encephalitis (WHO, 2018) The case fatality rate is estimated at 40% to 75%. This rate can vary by outbreak depending on local capabilities for epidemiological surveillance and clinical management. (WHO, 2018) Kerala is one of the best promoted states of India for tourism. Tourism plays a major role in the contribution towards the Kerala Economy. Tourism contributes approximately 10 Percent of the states GSDP (Wikipedia, 2018) .With the contribution of approximately 10% of the GSDP of Kerala, The breakout of this epidemic caused a fluctuation of the perception of positivity of Kerala tourism With respect to health safety. The cancellation of 50-60% of the bookings hampered the livelihood of most of the people who were depended upon tourism. In order to counter this cancellations and to change the perception of travel to Kerala because of the epidemic Nipah Virus, Tourism minister Mr. Kadakampally Surendran and his team of tourist officials have started an online campaign for the famous Neelakurinji Season. This is a once in 12 year Phenomenon which happens in Munnar. The State Tourism ministry has started a full-fledged campaign in order to attract tourist all across the globe. The Transportation facilities have been increased and coordination by many state tourism departments like KSTDC, DTPC, Etc., Measures of Waste management and disaster management has been taken into consideration since the footfall is predicted to be considerably large compared to the normal flow of tourists.

Prof. Ashish Parthasarathy
Assistant Professor

EEYA Sombu : An Endangered culinary equipment?

Before the advent of Steel utensils across south India, eeya sombu was very commonly used utensil across the Carnatic region. Eeya Sombu is a very delicate and ductile vessel made using the metal TIN. This vessel was a priced possession of a majority of the Tamil Brahmin communities across South India. With the Low melting point of tin it makes it very difficult to cook using the particular vessel. Cooking using this particular vessel was a skill. One of the greatest south Indian Cook Late. Krishnagiri Ranganayaki once said that during her best years of cooking which was more than 75 years ago, the majority of households in her community used this vessel to make Rasam. “The tastiest rasam was made using eeya sombu” she whispered with nostalgia when she used spoke about her days of cooking using firewood and charcoal. It was a tradition in the Tamil Brahmin community to gift an eeya sombu by the bride’s parents to the newly married couple Tin having a very low melting point used to melt with the exposure of excess heat. Cooking using the vessel was considered a skill even now. The ingredients were added to the vessel first and then they were placed on the cooking range, directly placing the vessel on the fire without the ingredients would expose the vessel to excess heat and the base of the vessel would melt down. The overindulgence of heat in a vessel full of rasam would also cause the base of the vessel to melt down and the rasam leaking from the vessel and spilling all over the cooking range. Manufacturing the vessel is not easy as each vessel is handcrafted. Producing a single vessel consumed an average of 5-7 man hours. A person who moulds the vessel is considered no less than a skilled craftsman. With the less use of the traditional vessel with the busy urbanic lifestyle the production of eeya sombu has reduced over several years. Is this tradition endangered? Yes it is. Traditions are not meant to be broken; if the tradition is lost then there would be disconnection from the practices of the forefathers. Reinstating the eeya sombu is very necessary as using the vessel for cooking was an emotion. Below is a traditional recipe to cook pepper rasam which is ideal to drink it as a soup or as an accompaniment with rice for this rainy season. RECIPE: Tomato – 1 Green Chilly – 1 Tamarind extract – 150 Ml Water – 150 Ml Coriander leaf – 2 Teaspoons Peppercorn – 1 teaspoon Turmeric – Half teaspoon Tempering: Sunflower oil – 2 tsp Mustard – 5 Grams Cumin - 5 Grams Dry Red chili – 1 Asafoetida – 1 Pinch Curry leaf – 5 to 6 leaves. Procedure: 1. Add all the ingredients. 2. Firstly, in a large kadai add in 1 tomato, 1 green chilly, few curry leaves and ½ tsp turmeric. 3. Also add 1 cup tamarind extract and salt to taste. 4. Cover and boil for 8 minutes or till tomatoes gets cooked completely. 5. furthermore add 2 cups of water adjusting the desired consistency, 6. Boil for 2 minutes and add in 1 tsp crushed pepper. 7. Stir well and do not boil further as pepper will loose flavors. 8. Now prepare the tempering by heating oil. 9. Add in 1 tsp mustard seeds, 1 tsp Jeera, pinch of asafoetida, 1 dried red chilly and few curry leaves. 10. Allow the tempering to splutter. 11. Further pour the tempering over rasam along with coriander leaves. 12. Finally, serve pepper rasam along with hot steamed rice or drink as a soup

Dr. Murthy K N B
Vice Chancellor

What is Academic Leadership?

We live today in an academic world like never before. There was a time when academicians were those people with long beards, surrounded by stacks of dis-organized books and equipment strewn all around, teaching with passion or doing experiments in long white coats, with no desire for any material things. That imagery has changed a lot. The demands on academics and academicians are much more complex. The governments expect academic institutions to produce more and better research outputs; the industry demands better employable graudates; parents expect all-round development; society expects furtherance of social causes and equity; the faculty expect a fulfilling career that is at par with the industry; the management expects growth, efficient operations, brand building and proliferation of courses. It is not difficult to imagine the burden of expectations on academic institution in such a situation. While meeting all these expectations requires many stakeholders of the institution to work together, it most certainly needs a leader who can provide the leadership necessary to visualize, articulate, coordinate and implement strategies to achieve goals and satisfy all stakeholders. Without the appropriate leadership, the institution will be like a ship without a rudder. It will meander, go hither and thither, will become directionless and finally sink, taking with it, all its passengers. So, the importance of leadership in an academic setting is as important as anywhere else. Having established the importance of academic leadership, let us turn our attention to what traits a good academic leader should have so that he can achieve the complex set of goals mentioned earlier. 1. An academic leader has to be a visionary: To reach a goal, one should first know what the goal is. And if that goal is in the future, the leader should have the capability to imagine the goal, perceive it and then make plans to achieve it. 2. An academic leader has to be articulate: While it is important to have a vision for the institution, it is not enough. In order to make the whole institute work towards achieving the vision, it is imperative that the vision has to be articulated in a way that makes every stakeholder work towards achieving the vision. He should have the capability to persuade, convince and paint a picture of the future that is considered as desirable to everyone. This is no mean task. 3. An academic leader has to be an academician: An academic leader’s words carry no credibility unless he is ‘one of us’. When you consider leaders like General Patton or Mahatma Gandhi, one of the main reasons why they has credibility was that they came from the ranks. People whom they led could easily relate to them. When that happens, the passion, dedication and commitment to a cause naturally surfaces. Anybody from outside that circle will be seen as a leader thrust from above and will be treated like a ‘foreigner’. 4. An academic leader has to be a team player: While leadership thrusts major responsibilities on a person, it is important that the leader carries himself as a ‘first among equals’. He should not create walls and boundaries between organisation layers. He should be always available, open to suggestions and should gladly welcome opposing views. It is through discussion and debate that useful knowledge evolves. A follower is more likely to respect an open and democratic leader and hence contribute positively to growth. If the leader is dictatorial, the followers are likely to show outwardly that they are following orders, but over a period of time, they become apathetic. This is counter-productive to the goals of the organization. 5. An academic leader has to lead by example: The leader has to be a role model to everyone. People will believe in people who lead by example. Leading by one’s own behavior is the greatest message that one can give. Not leading by example leads to loss of credibility. 6. An academic leader should have the courage of conviction: A leader will not be able to achieve anything, unless he truly believes in the goals that have been set. Once he believes in them he should have the courage of conviction to convince other stakeholders about the path to be followed. If he wavers or has doubts about the goals, it will send confusing signals down the organization. Apart from these, there are other traits like ability to work hard, ability to be available 24X7 etc. What we have dealt with above are some of the major leadership traits that go into making an academic leader.

Dr. Murthy K N B
Vice Chancellor

Values and Ethics

UNDERSTANDING OF VALUES AND ETHICS VALUES – Values are things that one believes in and are important for guiding one’s life and work. They are beliefs that define what is acceptable and what is not to an individual or an organization. They are beliefs that we live by. Values such as honesty, integrity, truth, and punctuality define desirable behavior in a society. In addition to such personal values, organizations may have values such as gender equality, equal opportunity for all and meritocracy that define what they stand for. Most values are set within the context of culture and history. Organizational values are usually set by the founders and reflect their importance for what they believe in. PES University has chosen Perseverance, Excellence and Service as its core values and strives to work towards imbibing these core values among its staff and students in their day-to-day activities in the University. Perseverance means that we do not give up the goals we have set for ourselves, no matter how difficult it may seem to achieve, no matter whether we fail sometimes. We just get up, dust ourselves off and try again … and again …and again, learning and improving every single time. Excellence means that it is not enough if we provide good education. We value excellence in the quality of education. In everything we do, we should strive towards creating a benchmark – be it teaching, research, learning, assessment, facilities or any academic activity in the University. Service means that the education is one path to serve the society. We should never forget the larger picture of service to society while we provide excellent education. The society around us is the ultimate stakeholder in the pursuit of our vision. Service to the society through education and creating valuable citizens of tomorrow is our ultimate goal. Let us, now, see how and why values become important as well as Why they are useful? Values provide the ability to judge, discriminate and decide what is good and even more importantly what is bad so that goodness wards off the bad. A few rules will have to be evolved to tell us what is less or more important and things that have intrinsic worth. The rules by which we make decisions about right and wrong, Do’s and Don’ts, should and shouldn’t, good and bad. Many such uses could be derived from possessing or pursuing such values through these rules. In other words these rules could be principles, standards and qualities that are considered desirable to be useful to the self and to others. In simple terms, to do good, one has to be good. The value has influence on attitude and behavior of an individual. It is a force affecting behavior having a discriminatory or judgmental component, help differentiation and promote retention. In summary, values lead to beliefs, beliefs lead to perceptions, perceptions lead to attitude and attitudes form the personality and personality leads to behavior. So the starting point for a desirable personality is value. ETHICS – Ethic is an ancient Greek word pertaining to one’s idea of right and wrong. When ethics is engraved as a code, ethical behavior springs up. What is embedded gets into practice as ethical behavior. Ethical behavior therefore becomes strong foundation of trust. A person with ethics obviously therefore becomes trustworthy. People can trust persons with ethics. Trust reinforces relationships and ethical behavior therefore strengthens bonding among people. Similar to a value, ethics also could be at personal, organization and Society levels. Ethical behavior attribute makes an individual strong, a group to flourish and an organization to reckon with. Since ethics tend to be codified into a formal system or set of rules to follow they could also be explicitly adopted by a group of people or professionals. Medical ethics govern medical personnel while Engineering ethics govern engineers and Professional ethics govern professionals. Professional ethics takes people to a high moral platform and motivates others to look up to them. Often ethical behavior leads to innate strength and moral correctness. PES University has incorporated “Understanding of Values and Ethics” in its mission statement.

Dr. Murthy K N B
Vice Chancellor

Mixed Model Learning Paradigm

How have teaching and learning changed over the ages? Are we using the right mix of teaching methodologies to make our students learn what we want them to learn? What is the ‘mixed model’ of teaching-learning? Some of these questions are answered below. The Latin word Educate means “to draw out”. This definition philosophically differs with the contemporary approach followed in traditional classrooms, where the teacher is the sole source of information who imparts the requisite knowledge to the students, who are stipulated to sit and understand the information in a passive manner. If you consider the ancient ‘GURUKULA’ system of teaching, the pupil or student used to spend twelve to fourteen years from the age of about five or so with a teacher or GURU. The teacher or the ‘GURU’ used to be in charge of a group of such youngsters, may be ten to fifteen in number. They would typically live in the ‘GURUKULA’ spending all their time doing one of the following things – (a) sit in a class room atmosphere with the teacher disseminating his knowledge of the sciences and the arts for the benefit of students (b) playing and spending time with other pupil or students including their seniors – some of who could be more than ten years senior (c) doing chores for the teacher’s family, working in the fields or doing their own chores. Finally, the teacher or GURU sends the pupil or student out of GURUKULA when convinced of achievements of the pupil or student and becoming an asset to the society. Most importantly, either GURU or pupil does not fix a timeframe for these achievements and duration of these achievements depends on the learnability and devotion of the pupil or student. The advantages of such a system were manifold: (a) Learning together – given that paper and writing were invented many centuries after the education system was born, it is very likely that pupil or students learnt sitting together, by repeating what the teacher said. In the absence of writing, the knowledge had to be ‘remembered’ well by pupil or students and the only way of doing this was to be very precise and accurate about the spoken word. This was achieved by learning and repeating together as a group – so that everyone was on the ‘same page’ so to say; (b) Learning by doing – The ‘living together’ environment encouraged immediate application of knowledge, resolving doubts and understanding of concepts by getting one’s hands dirty. It also encouraged the system of discussion and debate in a informal way that is conducive for learning instead of a formal set-up of theoretical debate; and (c) Learning from seniors – The fact that the mix of pupils or students had very senior and very junior students together helped faster maturity of the mind. A senior who was almost as knowledgeable as the teacher, but was still a ‘pupil or student’ in the hierarchy was someone the junior pupil or student could relate to and discuss doubts freely. What has changed over time? Over a period of time, due to social, political and cultural changes, the education system in India is mostly one of learning by rote. The evaluation systems are designed to test one’s memory rather than the ability to apply knowledge to real situations. This kind of system has helped scale-up education across the country, which a GURUKULA system could probably not have achieved. So, the question is ‘how do we come up with a model of education that is as effective as the old system, but scalable for today’s population’? Given the innumerable distractions for pupils or students in everyday life, it is no wonder that the attention span of students is decreasing over generations. In the current system, a teacher teaching the class in the old lecture method loses his pupil or students’ interest in about 10 to 15 minutes. The ability to absorb information effectively after this decreases exponentially. While there are exceptional teachers who can keep the class engaged for more than hour, these are more an exception than a rule. So, the question is ‘what new methodologies can we use to keep the pupil or student interested beyond the routine attention span’? In the earlier days, accessing information was the most difficult and laborious part of the learning process. The role of the teacher therefore was to be a repository of information to pass on that information in a methodical way to the pupil or students. But technology has now changed the whole paradigm. A host of current information repositories have made that role of the teacher redundant. The role of the teacher now is to make the pupil or student think and ask the right questions rather than to provide the answers. So, the question is ‘how do we transform our teaching-learning process to make it interactive and thought provoking with emphasis on application of knowledge rather than memorization of information’? These questions can be answered through the paradigm of mixed model of learning. In this model, the teacher is expected to spend no more than 15 minutes in laying the theoretical foundations of the concept at hand. This should then be followed by a set of activities (such as team-based activities, group discussions, projects, videos, quizzes, field visits and alike) to keep the pupils or students fully engaged and absorbed. Instant learning, instant gratification, active learning and continuous evaluation will replace long lectures, memory testing, passive learning and discrete evaluations. This transformation takes time. It needs a major change in the mindset of teachers and diligent planning of classroom activities. It needs a rethink of the evaluation system and a certain level of maturity of all the entities involved. Such a transformation needs cooperation from all stakeholders to succeed in the endeavor. “I never teach my pupil or students; I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn” – Albert Einstein

Dr. Murthy K N B
Vice Chancellor

Transformational Journey of PESU

Early experiences of PES University are sketched here and the journey has been worth every minute. Importance of higher education and research – The economic progress of any nation is determined by its natural resources, intellectual resources and financial resources. These resources should be appropriately utilized to create wealth and prosperity for its citizens. The quality of these resources can improve only with literacy, education and innovation in producing new or better products and services for the current globalized market. Higher education (covering post graduation) and research improves country’s competency which plays a crucial role in the country’s war against poverty and obscurantism. In India, there are 700+ universities in the form of public universities, private universities, deemed universities, government-aided universities, and central universities. All these universities have been catering different segments of students maintaining traditional standards in teaching-learning and evaluation processes. The compelling need of the hour, in this globalized world, is to have more universities preparing competent individuals with research bent of mind to solve real problems of the country. PES University which was established in 2013 is working towards achieving this goal and has undertaken this transformational journey by concentrating on the following: University as opportunity – PES has considered the University status is an opportunity to (a) introduce flexible curriculum with interdisciplinary and research flavor, (b) adopt global teaching-learning as well as assessment practices and (c) meet student aspirations to become competent global workforce. Statutory Regulations – The government has a set of statutory guidelines in the form of physical infrastructure, staff quality, and financial corpus that defines the eligibility criteria for declaring the university status. The status provides a lot of freedom with responsibility and accountability. The success of any university depends on the judicious utilization this freedom through careful planning and design of framework keeping basic hygiene factors intact. Vision and Leadership – The leadership with a vision, broken down into measurable goals and strategies, has to be in place. The leadership, at several levels that can communicate the vision and motivate the whole organization to work towards the stated goals, is one of the most challenging phases of transformation. The leadership has to create confidence and sense of belongingness in each and every member of the organization and consider inputs from all corners. Structure – University status means a big change in the structure of the organization. It is easy to understand how this change requires many more roles to be played and the challenges of talent acquisition that go with it. Academics – In order to produce the right talent, it is necessary to understand the gaps that exist between what is required and what is available. Once the gaps are known, it is needed to strategize to build those competencies. A whole new academic regime is required to be designed and implemented. Assessment of academic performance of students requires an extra effort to evaluate all aspects of achievements to solve real-time problems. Research – It is the responsibility of universities to create new knowledge in ways that can be used to benefit society. This is generally a slow and time-consuming process, achieved over decades. The first few initiatives in this regard sets the pace and direction for the future. This also needs a lot of financial capital in the form of laboratories, world-class research talent, equipment and so on. It is important to recognize that one cannot expect short-term returns and that the returns are only in the long run. Effective research usually thrives in an environment of freedom and delegation. The importance of leadership in creating such an environment can never be emphasized enough. Culture – It is the culture of a university that makes it different and better than another one. Leadership at various levels have an important role to play in creating a research and academic culture that is empowered. Culture dictates what is the expected behavior of staff and students in a given situation. The right culture goes a long way in making people work together with the same spirit. Mindset – The last but not the least important is the mindset of the people involved in building the institution. The big change required in thinking from a university context is the most challenging. Preparing oneself for the larger purpose is a great lesson in itself. Change of mindset makes achievement of goals that much easier. In summary, building a university requires a leap in vision and mindset. It then needs establishing the right goals and strategy to meet that vision. In the process of implementing the strategy, it needs research orientation, enhancement of competency across all levels, supported by a proper structure. The leadership needs to communicate the vision and govern for results – both short-term and long-term.

Dr. Murthy K N B
Vice Chancellor

Commitment to Law and Morality

The mission statement of PES University states ‘…commitment to Law and Morality…’. What does this really mean? What is its real significance? Is it something that we should really give a thought to or is it so intuitively obvious that we just glance at it, give a cursory reading and move on? Commitment to law means following the law of the land. Everything we do should be within the boundaries of the law enacted by the local government and the law has evolved over a long period of time. Legal systems, laws and enforcement of laws are required to keep the society in order. Laws are required to make sure that all citizens and corporations including educational institutions get fair treatment. Everything we do should be legal. Now, that part seems easy. What it means to us is ‘follow all the rules’. The other way of saying this is ‘don’t break any rules’. The courts are formed to interpret actions to determine whether they are right or wrong according to law. So, where does morality figure in all this? Morality is about judging situations as ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ and this is where legality and morality intersect. While legality is about judging based on the written law of the land, morality is about judging based on one’s own personal values about what we consider as right and what we consider as wrong. While legality is determined by society, morality is determined by each individual. When legality and morality are well aligned, we have peace and harmony. That is the hope with which the mission statement of PES University has included the phrase ‘…commitment to Law and Morality..’. As thinking and responsible individuals who are part of a society, PES University urges its people to operate within the law and be morally responsible. One should be aware, however, that sometimes, there can be conflict between the two. When Mahatma Gandhi tried to get into a first class carriage in South Africa protesting against seggregation of colored people, he was legally wrong, but morally right. He was fighting for equality and the right to dignity of every individual. It is not that he wanted to travel first class. If a company uses child labor in a country (which has no child labor law) to manufacture products at low cost, it was legally right, but morally wrong. So, while it is important to be legally and morally right, morality should take precedence if we want to make this a better society. “The law is not the private property of lawyers, nor is justice the exclusive province of judges and juries. In the final analysis, true justice is not a matter of courts and law books, but of a commitment in each of us to liberty and mutual respect” ———- Jimmy Carter

Dr. Murthy K N B
Vice Chancellor

SENSE OF HISTORY

History is knowing about past events within their context and using it as a guide to the present and direct / lead / guide the future. It provides a perspective to deal with the problems of the present. The events that have actually occurred are evidenced by dates and specifics. It is a new knowledge gained from past issues and matters which are largely evidential. Let us see what sense of history means to people from different walks of life: (a) Doctors diagnose problems of patient by eliciting medical history of their patients and plan course of treatment based on history; (b) Sports Coaches prepare a game-plan for the team by gathering information about the historical play behavior of opponents; (c) Judges write their judgments by relying many times on precedence and past cases; (d) Bankers approve loan facility to customers on the basis of their credit history; (e) Police round up criminals by comparing the current pattern with the history of similar deeds; (f) Business plans are prepared from the knowledge of history of sales; (g) Similarly, the scholastic merit of a student may be judged to a reasonable accuracy by reading the history of previous academic performance of the student. So, history facilitates diagnosis, planning, strategizing and making important decisions. Many times even projections and predictions are possible by the knowledge of history – be it in academic, business, medical fields or even in personal sphere. One need not always learn by personal experience but can be prudent enough to learn how others failed in the past in that area, matter or issue. Learning from others’ mistake is prudence. Life is complex and therefore history is complex. How one behaved in that situation in the past, what was the experience then, what were the consequences for such a decision, what are accomplishments – are all subject to personal biases of historians. Undermining the history could prove to be costly and many times could even be harmful. As someone said ‘you will ignore history at your own peril’. Unwavering faith in sense of history may lead to due diligence, effort optimization, time and money saving, and be less harmful. A smart history student will observe in past events good and bad; change and continuity; creativity and destruction; generosity and greed; and such other experiences. After all, history is created by humans and humans are complex. So, it is important for the prudent among us to expect both, and make sense out of history to apply it in situations and help us prepare face the consequences and if possible, influence it. History displays the whole range of human emotions and behaviors in vivid colors and shows us our place in future history. It helps us understand families, societies, civilizations and nations. This is why we have to learn history. The specifics of how the causes and effects have shaped this world make history more appealing and interesting. History provides us the key to the laboratory of human experience. It shows us how the world worked before and how it can work in present and future as well. It enables us to critically think, interpret, evaluate and decide. It gives all the essentials required to lead a good civic life. What to do and what not to do; History gives a roadmap and an evidential understanding of critical issues of life. Hence it is essential to be a student of history and grasp its nuances. We have all the good reasons therefore to celebrate the past all the time since we cannot separate or even escape from the past. Both the present and future have to become history. So it makes a lot of sense to develop a sense of history. PES University has in its mission statement – Sense of History.

Dr. Murthy K N B
Vice Chancellor

Managing Distractions – Key to Success

There has never been a point in history that the humankind has never truly been free from intrusions which may turn out to be distractions / additive behavioral tendencies. The intrusions were in the form of relatives, radios, paper mail or others. The present day intrusions prevail in the form of television, mobile phones, internet, video gaming, e-mail and SMS notifications, Whatsapp, Twitter and Facebook along with a multitude of open browser tabs and pop-ups that volunteer exhaustive information, all of which are constantly bombarding us with information and incessantly competing for our attention and thus causing us to be surrounded in a haze of multitasking activity. Although there is no denying that the utilitarian importance of these that enable us to a lead a more contented existence, while robustly empowering us to readily access any desirable information at the click of a button or a tap of a screen. These slowly begin to sneak-in, excite, give new experience and percolate into brain (mind). They pervade and gradually start disturbing privacy, peace and focus. It is very difficult to draw the line as to when their usage borders as a source of distraction or an enabler of additive behavioral tendencies. It is important to note that the border line varies from person to person and it can be identified when the dependency becomes more and more or when it becomes impossible to keep away from the source for a long time. In today’s technologically evolved society, it is highly improbable that we can locate a single student who does not carry a mobile phone and owing to the radical technological advancements in this pocket-sized gadget, a student can utilize this device to carry out a plethora of tasks such as communicating with acquaintances, accessing multitier information, social networking and so on. Although the smartphone app markets proffer a multitude of applications that cater specifically to the requirements of students and have the potential to boost their academic performance if utilized effectively, studies show that majority of the students only utilize them for recreational purposes and are constantly on social networking apps such as Facebook, Twitter and Whatsapp. The usage of such apps has reached such an extent that students seldom pay attention to the classroom proceedings as they are perpetually immersed in browsing the Internet or busy updating their Facebook status. The primary purpose of paying a fee in order to receive a wholesome education and the requisite practical knowledge for their respective domains is unequivocally undermined due to the lack of attention on the student’s part during critical classroom sessions and thus the substantial efforts tendered by the teachers are rendered vain. Certain studies illustrate that a typical college student engages with their digital device for non-academic tasks on an average of 10 to 12 times a day during their classroom sessions and about 10% of the students have conceded that as a direct result, their grades have declined. The overindulgence in the usage of smartphones and gaming devices have been shown to not only be the central source of distraction for students, but also leads to a number of psychological issues such as restlessness and tends to aggravate sleep problems and cultivates stress, all of which effectively deter academic performance. The pervasiveness of technology in our day-to-day existence will in no manner diminish, but on the contrary, newer technologies will usher in a surplus of novel devices and gadgets. Hence it is the duty of the students to reasonably train themselves to persistently concentrate and suppress distractions. If students get into such distractions, their attention span will be lowered considerably and they will consequently have trouble in succeeding in any given vocation, as the ability to focus is a key element to success that is often ignored. Although parents and teachers are consistently attempting to supervise the students in order to ensure that the students do not overindulge in their usage of such devices, such monitoring policies are seldom effective. Hence it is ultimately up to students to police themselves and ascertain that they use such technologies in a regulated manner and imperatively develop self-discipline in order to ensure their success and persevere in today’s competitive world. An ancient Sanskrit proverb contends, “The elixir of amrita can turn into poison, if consumed in excess”. The key to effectively dealing with such distractions and ensuring persistent academic success is Restraint and Self-Discipline.

Dr. Murthy K N B
Vice Chancellor

Opportunity to Institute Gold Medals and Cash Awards

People’s Education Society (PES) was established in 1972 with a vision to create a professionally superior and ethically strong global workforce. PES has established PES University, under Karnataka Act No. 16 of 2013, as a State Private University on November 19, 2013 as per notification of Government of Karnataka. PES University is also recognized by UGC, New Delhi as a State Private University and is a member of International Association of Universities (IAU). The University holds an annual CONVOCATION to award degree certificates to its graduating students and honorary doctoral degrees to select achievers. During the Convocation, meritorious students are conferred RANK AWARDS and GOLD MEDALS from the University. The top rankers in the University are the students who joined PES University through competitive entrance exams such as CET and PESSAT. Every individual who is endowed with exemplary merit, skills and talent needs to be recognized and honored by the University and the society at large. Keeping this spirit in view, the University has made provisions for others to join the University in celebrating the success of these meritorious students by instituting Gold Medals and Cash Awards by way of depositing a fixed amount in the University Awards Fund. These awards shall serve to motivate many other students to strive for academic excellence. These awards may be instituted in the name of (a) a person (b) a Trust, (c) a Society or (d) an organization. Endowments and donations for the award of Gold Medals and Cash Awards will be accepted by the University under the following conditions:- 1) Donors with intent to institute endowment/s and medal/s in PES University shall submit a proposal to the Registrar. 2) The Registrar, with the approval of the Vice-Chancellor, shall place the proposal before the Academic Council (AC), Executive Council (EC) and Board of Governors (BOG) for their opinion or approval, as the case may be. 3) The decision of the BOG shall be communicated to the Donor. 4) If the proposal is accepted, then the Donor shall deposit Rs.500,000 for instituting a Gold Medal and for cash awards Rs. 100,000 into PESU Awards Fund. There is no provision to institute an award, an endowment, donation or medal on the basis of political affiliation, religion, caste or community. 5) Accepting endowments from foreign individuals, foreign societies, and foreign organizations is subject to prior approval of the Central / State Government. 6) A MOU agreement shall be signed by the Registrar and the donor, clearly enunciating the terms and conditions. 7) The entire amount of endowment donated by the Donor shall be treated as the corpus and the interest earned thereof shall be utilized to defray the expenses incurred towards the cost of the Gold Medal or cash award. 8) The medals shall be called ‘……….………… (name of the Award could be suggested by the donor) Gold Medal’ and shall be awarded during the Convocation every year, as per the criteria for award of medals and the MOU with the donor. The first medal shall be awarded after accrual of one year’s interest on the endowment. 9) The University shall have the power to award a cash prize whenever the interest from the endowment is insufficient for the award of Gold Medal, in which case, it shall be called, ‘………………. (name) Cash Award’. 10) In the event of no medal being awarded in a year, the amount equivalent to the cost of the medal shall be added to the corpus. Similarly, any amount of interest over and above the cost incurred for awarding a medal in a year shall be added to the corpus. 11) The University shall have the power to negotiate with the donor for increasing the donation, whenever the funds are insufficient to carry out the purposes to which the funds have been endowed. 12) The University shall intimate the name of the student receiving the Gold Medal / Cash award instituted by the Donor 13) The University shall extend an invitation to the Donors for the award ceremony and treat them as VIPs at the event. 14) In the event of refusal by the donor to increase the endowment amount, the Institute shall have the power to cancel the endowment and the unspent amount of endowment shall be added to the corpus. 15) At least 5 regular candidates should have successfully passed in the University examination concerned. 16) The candidate should have passed the examination in the First Class with Distinction and in the first attempt, in consecutive years, in all the years/parts/phase of the courses, with no gaps of studies, for any reason, whatsoever. The candidate should not have obtained the transitory grades such as W or I during entire duration of the program of study. The candidate should therefore have completed the course in the minimum prescribed time frame for that program of study. 17) Further, the candidate should have obtained highest aggregate CGPA amongst all the eligible candidates, in the Program of Study concerned, at the University examination held in that year. 18) In case of a tie, the medal/ cash prize shall be awarded to a student with highest CGPA at end of previous semester. Still, if there is a tie, then the amount shall be apportioned equally among the candidates. 19) In case of endowments and medal sponsored for a particular subject by the donor, all the above criteria such as first attempt, minimum duration and not obtaining transitional grades shall apply except that the candidate should have secured highest grade and/or marks in the subject concerned in that year. 20) The list of awardees for the gold medals/ cash prizes shall be prepared by the Controller of Examinations well in time to ensure presentation of the awards in the Convocation.

Dr. Murthy K N B
Vice Chancellor

Employability of Prospective Graduates

At present, not all prospective graduates, particularly engineering graduates, are able to find gainful employment on account of lack of desired skills as reported in different surveys. However, these surveys do not mention which of the desired skills is not possessed by the graduates. In grappling with this situation, it is appropriate here to point out that students come into institutions with various levels of aptitudes owing to different reasons. These aptitudes are further influenced by the way students respond to the learning process necessary for the curriculum at hand. If we go by the dictum, ‘aptitude begets skills’ we have to consider the development of aptitude for acquiring requisite skills. Traditionally and quite broadly professional skills have been classified as hard (domain) skills and soft skills. This categorisation is from the point of view of industry and not from the point of view of an education sector or individual. Hence, there is a discord between the education sector that trains students and the industries that employ them. An alternative approach provides a new perspective and at once may suggest novel ways to kindle interest in trainers and students alike while delivering advantage to the industry. Each teacher in a classroom typically experiences three groups of students (a) first group asks a lot of questions in the classroom to understand; (b) second group hangs onto every word the teacher speaks and bonds well with the teacher; and (c) third group does homework happily and seeks guidance from the teacher in correcting their mistakes. It may be each teacher’s observation that it is not necessary that these three groups of students’ behaviour are all the same. This pattern suggests that an individual’s brain may have three functionalities: cognitive, affective and conative. Cognitive functionality relates to ‘set of all mental abilities and processes related to acquiring knowledge’ which is well understood by many and is commonly referred to as the IQ (Intelligence Quotient). Affective functionality relates ’to experience of feeling or emotions’ which is understood by a few and is in popular parlance also referred to as the EQ (Emotional Quotient). Conative functionality relates to ‘natural tendency, impulse, desire, volition, striving or directed effort’ which is less understood and may be referred to as the XQ (Execution Quotient). Imagine three scenarios based on typical complaints from teachers and / or students. (a) In the first scenario, ‘a student who grasps most of the subject, rarely comes to class, does not do any homework and still gets good marks’. This is a kid who has an exceptional cognitive skill to the exclusion of the other two. (b) In a second scenario, ‘a student always makes it a point to see the teacher in the morning, appears to be intently listening in the classes, cannot do homework and finds the subject very hard to follow’. This is a kid who has an exclusive affective skill with difficulties in the other two parts. (c) In a third scenario, ‘a student is punctual, writes all notes, submits every homework, is expected to perform well, cannot understand or apply the knowledge and may fail in the exams.’ This is a kid who has the drive but lacks sufficient development of cognitive and affective aspects. These three scenarios suggest that a student may come to the class with varied degrees of development of the three functions of the brain. Thus, the challenging task for an educator is to create approaches that may address each of these facets and build students’ confidence in a holistic manner. All stakeholders in education may have to consider this approach to developing students’ necessary aptitude, required skills and the consequent attitude by designing relevant training programs. This, in some measure, will have addressed the lacunae that employers find in the new recruits. PES University has initiated a few training programs for the teachers with this approach in mind.

Dr. Murthy K N B
Vice Chancellor

About Higher Education in India – 2

With nearly 800 universities and over 40,000 colleges with an enrolment of over 33 million, Indian Higher Education System is undoubtedly the largest higher education system in the world. With such explosion in numbers, maintaining high standards remains a challenge. In this context, it was timely that MHRD asked “Association of Indian Universities” to come up with a study on Higher Education. In 2016, the association published a study titled “Regulation of Higher Education in India and Abroad: A study of Select Countries”. The study covered a comprehensive assessment of Indian Higher Education spanning regulatory frameworks, prevailing best practices, and a comparative analysis of higher education in India with global peers such as USA, UK, Germany, France and Singapore whose higher education is considered Credible and rated high. It was mentioned that there is a feeling about Indian Higher Education being over regulated and under-governed owing to the overlapping functions, multiplicity of agencies and rigid systems. For example, there are more than 15 Regulatory Councils in higher education space such as AICTE, BCI, MCI, DCI, and COA covering different sectors that operate under the broader oversight UGC (University Grants Commission). The report also points out that although Indian Universities can admit up to 15% international students of their capacity of 33 million which comes to a healthy target of 4.95 million but Indian higher education institutions could attract about 31,126 in 2015 and 30,423 in 2016. On the positive side, the international students coming to India represent many more nations now compared to few decades back. From 60 countries which sent students to India in 1984, we have 149 countries that are sending students to India in 2014. These numbers pose a question. Should we be concerned about low performance in attracting international students? What could be the reasons that have held India back compared to global peers. It is important to delve further as this represents a lost economic opportunity as well. Sri. Kaushik Basu, the former Chief Economic Adviser to India, is vocal that Higher Education is one area where India has natural competitive advantage and remains under-exploited. In addition, an important yard-stick to compare higher education across nations is the presence of International Students in the higher education eco-system. In historical times, India itself was leader in attracting highest number of students and scholars to Nalanda and Taxashila. It is worthwhile to see how do we fare at current times. While conclusive analysis on relative preferences of international students may need more analysis, we can enumerate a set of reasons that may explain why the quality of higher education is not meeting their expectation: 1. Increasing availability of high quality education in their home country; 2. Rising cost of education and excessive commercialization of higher education; 3. Relative attractiveness of academics as a profession in India; 4. Limited availability of international faculty in our colleges and universities; 5. Restricted flexibility in terms of horizontal mobility to students; 6. Narrow focus that does not cater to developing traits like ethical behaviour, professionalism, negotiation, mediation, public policy, and diplomacy; 7. Specializations not keeping up with needs; 8. Sack of capacity for state of the art research along with world-class education; 9. Inadequate engagement with industry and society; and 10. Lack of innovation culture. PES University is looking at the above issues to take the lead.

Dr. Murthy K N B
Vice Chancellor

About Higher Education in India – 1

It is well known that the economic progress of any country depends on its natural resources, intellectual resources and financial capital. It is the goal of every country to create wealth and prosperity for its citizens by configuring, combining, developing and leveraging these resources appropriately. The quality of these resources can improve only with education, in general, and higher education, in particular, by playing a crucial role in the country’s war against poverty and obscurantism. In today’s globalized world, no country can remain isolated but to compete in the world market. The concept of world ranking (three established and influential global rankings are from ShanghaiRanking Consultancy: Academic Ranking of World Universities – ARWU, Times Higher Education – THE and Quacquarelli Symonds – QS) has been introduced in order to measure the quality prevalent in a higher education institution. The number of higher education institutions within top 100 / 500 is used as a parameter to assess the economic progress of the country. In line with this philosophy, Government of India has taken a step of recognizing and supporting TWENTY higher education institutions (TEN from Government and TEN from Private sector) in the country as “Institutions of Eminence”. It is a rare coincidence that Prof. Pankaj Chandra (Vice-Chancellor of Ahmedabad University, former Director of IIM- Bengaluru and a member of the Yashpal Committee for Renovation and Rejuvenation of Higher Education formed by Government of India) has authored a book titled “Building Universities that matter – Where are Indian institutions going wrong?”, published by Orient BlackSwan Private Limited in 2017, stressing the need for eradicating issues in Indian higher education system such as heavy handed regulation and control, low infrastructure investment, poor quality teaching, corruption, nepotism and student violence. The book provides the right kind of organizational processes and procedures for building effective higher education institutions by providing a reference frame. This book is a “Must Read” for all who are concerned about the future of higher education in India. A detailed analysis of the neglected issues of governance in higher education, the processes that weaken governance systems in universities and how they impact learning on campuses has been well presented. Prof. Pankaj Chandra emphasizes that the universities (or higher education institutions) must be recognized as social organizations for carrying new experiments, generating new ideas and creating new voices. He also argues that the universities are different and have to be administered, managed and steered differently from managing bureaucratic or commercial organizations. When Indian Universities are criticized for under achievement, the book builds a case for redesigning of the university as an organization adopting new models of governance to rejuvenate itself. I am very hopeful that the inputs from experts like Prof. Pankaj Chandra will help the policymakers as well as regulators, institutional trusts as well as boards, scholars as well as practitioners, and university leadership to come up with right framework for bringing in needed changes to transform the existing institutions as well as shaping these world-class higher education institutions in the country in order to improve the economic progress which is an essential priority. Let us recapitulate this great country which had a well flourished Nalanda and Taxila models of university systems.